Stones and History

Stones & History

African Turquoise

SiO2(silicon dioxide)

Origin. South Africa.

(Jasper).Color. Light blue, blue-green, green.

Hardness. 6,5 - 7.

Energy. Evolutionary, Transformation.

Chakra. Third eye.

History. Although African Turquoise is called Turquoise, it is actually not turquoise in the traditional sense. Rather, it is a form of jasper mined in Africa.
Metaphysically, African Turquoise is an evolutionary stone – it is supposed to help you bring necessary change in your life and open you up to what the future will bring for you. It helps you balance your past and future, as well as become your true self.


SiO2 (silicon dioxide)  Blue lace.

Origin. Agate can be found in most of the world.

Crystal system. Rhombohedral microcrystalline.

Color. Bands of blue and white, white to grey, orange to red, black.

Hardness. 6,5-7.

Energy. Communicator, listener.

Chakra. All chakras.

History. Agate was named by the Greek scholar Theophrastus in the third century BC after the river Achates, located in the present-day Sicily and called river Dirillo, where it was first discovered. The Greeks became renowned for their skills in carving agate, and some of their most famous artists used the stone, including Pyrgoteles, the engraver of the famous agate cameo of Alexander the Great with ram´s horns of the Egyptian god Amun.   In the Roman Empire, agate was used for all sorts of jewelry, including seal rings. When it could be cut to show concentric circles, it was valued as a remedy for the evil eye and to strengthen all virtues and provide protection from harm.


KAISi3O8 (potassium aluminosilicate) microline.

Origin. Brazil, Colorado-U.S.A, Madagascar, Russia.

Crystal system. Triclinic.

Color. Blue-green with lighter striations.

Hardness. 6-6,5.

Energy. Outgoing, curious.

Chakra. Throat, heart.

History. Amazonite derives its name from the Amazon River in South America, even though it is jade, not amazonite, that is found there. Spanish explores who named it, apparently confused it with another green mineral. The ancient Egyptians often used amazonite, or uat, as they called it, for carvings. Its color resembles turquoise and sometimes even emerald and jade. The colors of these stones were commonly associated with the afterlife, fertility and protection from harm.


C10H16O - Complex hydrocarbons (fossil resin).

Origin. Most of the world, but the Baltics is home to the largest known deposit of amber, also called succinite, with about 80% of the world’s known amber found there.

Color. Yellow, yellow-red, red, milky, green.

Hardness. 2-2,5.

Energy. Enlivening, stimulating, electric.

Chakra. Solar plexus.

History. Because it is light and easily worked, amber has been a valuable jewel for thousands of years. Classical poets described amber as the tears of gods, or as the essence of the rays of the setting sun washed up on the seashore. In many ancient civilizations, amulets and medicines were commonly made with amber. Worked amber beads have been found in Stone Age burial sites in Scandinavia.


SiO2 (silicon dioxide).

Origin. Most of the world, especially Uruguay and Brazil.

Crystal system. Trigonal.

Color. Pale violet to deep purple.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Self-controlled, calm.

Chakra. Crown.

History. Amethyst has adorned jewelry for at least 5,000 years. It was cut for seals and Rings by the ancient Egyptians, and was popular in both classical Greece and Rome.   There was a common belief that amethyst could prevent the worst effects of too much alcohol, and thus derived its name from the Greek word amethystos, meaning “not drunken”. Amethyst was a fashionable gemstone for Victorian jewelry, as it symbolized sobriety, reliability, and spiritual aspiration.


SiO2 (silicon dioxide)

Origin. Almost all commercially, ametrine is mined only in Bolivia.

Crystal system. Trigonal.

Color. Pale violet to deep purple mixed with light to dark yellow or orange.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Mental and spiritual clarity.

Chakra. Solar plexus, crown.

History. Legend has it that ametrine was first introduced to Europe by conquistador Don Felipe, as a gift to the Spanish Queen, after he received a mine in Bolivia as a dowry when he married princess Anahi, from the native Ayoreos tribe.
When the time came for him to return to Spain, Anahi planned to go with him, against the wishes of her people, who attempted to kill Don Felipe to prevent him from taking her. Anahi was accidently killed as she was warning him of his fate. As she lay dying, she gave him an Ametrine crystal. The two colors in the stone, purple and orange, represent how she was torn between the love for her tribe and love for her husband.



Origin. Brazil, Burma, Mexico, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, United States.

Crystal system. Hexagonal.

Color. Transparent to translucent, usually green, yellow, blue to violet, pink, brown.

Hardness. 5.

Energy. Inspiration, creativity.

Chakra. Solar plexus.

History. Apatite, from the Greek word “apate”, meaning to deceive. There is a figure in Greek mythology named Apate who was the spirit of deceit and deception. Apatite received this name because it was so often confused with other minerals. Most commonly, apatite is confused with fluorite, aquamarine and tourmaline.


Be3AI2Si6O18 (beryl).

Origin. Brazil, Colombia, U.S.A, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and some of the finest from Russia.

Crystal system. Hexagonal.

Color. Blue, blue-green.

Hardness. 7,5-8.

Energy. Companionable, convivial.

Chakra. Throat.

History. The color of aquamarine has connected it to the element of water and to the sea in particular. From the third century BC, Greeks and Romans used the stone as a protective charm for overseas journeys, together with carved images of Poseidon, god of the sea. Aquamarine was also a symbol of happiness and hope, like emerald, was associated with love and friendship.


SiO2 (silicon dioxide, with inclusions of fuchsite).

Origin. India, Spain, Chile, Russia. Crystal system. Trigonal, monoclinic.

Color. Green, orange-brown, red, blue, gray.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Opportunity, chance, freedom.

Chakra. Solar plexus, heart.

History. Aventurine has been valued by many civilizations over the centuries. Aventurine carvings from China date from the third century BC, and the stone was used for carving in the Mediterranean area. Chrome-bearing fuchsite (a variety of muscolite mica) is the classic inclusion, and gives a silvery green or blue sheen.



Origin. Indonesia, Israel, Democratic Republic of Congo, Chile, England, United States.

Crystal system. Orthorhombic.

Color. Blue, cyan or blue-green, green.

Hardness. 3 – 3,5.

Energy. Peacefulness, Love, Creativity.

Chakra. Solar plexus.

History. The name derives from the Ancient Greek word “chrysos”, meaning gold and “kola” meaning glue. This is an ancient reference to the name of a material used to solder gold and was first used by Theophrastus in 315 BC.
There is a story of Cleopatra carrying chrysocolla with her wherever she went, due to a belief that it would calm and soothe violent people.
In addition, it is believed to help people with anxiety and depression when they are forced to stay in one place, such as hermits or monks.


K(Ca;Na)2 Si4 O10 (OH;F)H2O (silicate mineral).

Origin. Serbia, Russia.

Crystal system.

Color. Lavender to purple, with a pearly luster. Weekly fluorescent.

Hardness. 5-6.  

Energy. Intuitive, absorbing.

Chakra. Brow.

History. Charoite is a rare mineral, and though discovered in the 1940´s, it was not known to the outside world until its description in 1978.   Charoite is named after the river Chara in Serbia, Russia. It is said to be opaque and unattractive when found in the field, a fact that may have contributed to its late recognition.


SiO2 silica (silicon dioxide).

Origin. Brazil, Uruguay.

Crystal system. Trigonal, trapezohedral, hexagonal.

Color. Yellow, golden brown, orange brown.


Energy.Comforting, uplifting, happy.

Solar plexus.

History. Natural yellow citrine is rare, and most commercial stones are actually heat-treated amethyst or smoky quartz. The pale varieties can resemble other precious stones such as yellow beryl, chrysoberyl, and some varieties of topaz.   During the middle ages, citrine was thought to carry the energy of the sun´s rays, and it was used as a remedy for people whose energy and moods became depressed during the long winter months.


CaF2 (halide mineral).

Origin. China, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, Norway, Mexico, Canada, Kenya, U.S.A. Alaska, South Africa.

Crystal system. Isometric.

Color. Purple, blue, green, yellow, pink, red, white, brown, black, colorless. Fluorescence
under ultraviolet light.

Hardness. 4.

Energy. Inventive, coordinated, integrated.

Chakra. Brow.

History. The Romans imported fluorite from Iran (then known as Parthia) to make the famous murrhine vases. The Greeks also used fluorite as an ornamental stone. George Gabriel Strokes named the phenomena of fluorescence from fluorite in 1852. Today fluorite is a very important industrial mineral, and is used to make fluorine gas and hydrofluoric acid for steel and glass were.


X3Y2 (Sio4)3 (nesosilicates).

Origin. India, U.S.A. Australia, China.

Crystal system. Cubic, rhombic, dodecahedron, icositetrahedron.

Color. Red, green, yellow, orange, blue, purple, brown, black, pink, colorless.

Hardness. 6,5 – 7,5.

Energy. Active, energetic, unfocused.

Chakra. Base.

History. The name garnet is thought to derive from the Latin word punica granatum, meaning pomegranate, whose seeds are bright red and occur in large numbers, just like garnet crystals in their rock matrix.


Fe2O3 (iron oxide).

Origin. South Africa.

Crystal system. Rhombohedra.

Color. Metallic silver gray to brick red.

Hardness. 5,5 – 6,5.

Energy. Strong, secure.

Chakra. Base.

History. Hundreds of thousands of years before the smelting of iron was discovered, hematite ore was a major trade item. In its metallic form, it was used for jewelry and ornaments, but most precious was the fine-grained ocher – an earthy iron-rich compound used as a sacred red pigment.
The oldest mines known are in South Africa, where the hematite was dug out of open pits with wood and bone picks. These mines were in continuous use for many thousands of years. Once a pit was exhausted, it was carefully refilled to restore the sacred place to its original state.
The graves and bones of Neanderthal man have been found packed in red ocher, suggesting that, even at this early time, man recognized the spiritual symbolism of this life-giving blood of Mother Earth.
Hematite continues to be an important source of red pigment today.


Origin. Australia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, India, Madagascar, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, United States.

Crystal system. Orthorhombic.

Color. Blue, smoky blue, bluish violet, greenish, yellowish brown, gray, pale blue.

Hardness. 7 – 7,5.

Energy. Healing and Balancing.

Chakra. Third Eye.

History. The name iolite derives from the Greek word for violet.
It was also called water sapphire and Vikings' Compass because of its usefulness in determining the direction of the sun on overcast days. Vikings used it for this purpose.



Origin. United States, Brazil, Madagascar, Australia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

Crystal system. Monoclinic.

Color. Pink to Lilla, color caused by traces of manganese.

Hardness. 6,5 - 7.

Energy. Emotional, Balance.

Chakra. Heart and solar plexus.

History. Named after George Frederick Kunz, a famous mineralogist and jeweler.
Kunzite was discovered in 1902. It is known to be a source of lithium. The lithium from kunzite is used in medicine, electronics and batteries, among other uses.
It´s been reported that holding a piece of kunzite over the solar plexus can help lessen panic attacks.
It´s also believed to help and ease the need for overindulgence with alcohol.
Kunzite may fade in direct sunlight.


SiO2 (silicon dioxide).

Origin. Mexico, Australia, Madagascar.

Color. Red, yellow, brown, green, and rarely blue.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Skillful, practical.

Chakra. Base.

History. Jasper was used for ornaments and amulets throughout the ancient world and the Middle Ages. The attraction of the stone was that every piece was unique in its color and markings, yet it could be found in large enough volumes for carving vases and tables. Red jasper was popular in the past as a protection against the bites of snakes and other venomous animals, and against the effect of poison. In Greece, jasper was carved to produce seals in the 1800 B.C. Based upon archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.


(Ca,Na)(AI,Si)4O8 (Feldspar, tectosilicate).

Origin. Labrador-Canada, Madagascar, Norway, Finland, Ukraine.

Crystal system. Triclinic.

Color. Gray, brown, greenish, blue, yellow, colorless.

Hardness. 6 -6,5.

Energy. Transformative, surprising, unexpected.

Chakra. All chakras.

History. In the late eighteenth century, a missionary exploring the shores of Labrador in Canada, found boulders of this strange mineral. Soon after this initial identification, labradorite was found in Finland and Ukraine, although Labrador remained the primary source for gem-quality stone. The beauty of the stone ensured that it quickly became favored for carving ornaments and jewelry.

Lapis Lazuli

(Na,Ca)8(AISO4)6(S,SO4 ,CI).

The main component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%) a feldspatathoid silicate mineral with the formula above.

Origin. Afghanistan, Chile, Russia, Angola, Burma, Pakistan, Canada, India, U.S.A.

Crystal system. None, as lapis lazuli is a rock.

Color. Deep blue, blue, light blue. Most lapis lazuli contains calcite (white) sodalite (blue) and pyrite (metallic yellow).

. 5,5.

Energy. Truthful, serious.

Throat, brow.

The Sar-e-Sang mine deposits in Afghanistan have been worked for more than 6000 years, and were the source of lapis lazuli for the ancient Egyptian civilizations. Powdered lapis lazuli was used as eyeshadow by Cleopatra, and well known by the Greeks and Romans.


The composition of almost all lava of the Earth's crust is dominated by silicate minerals, mostly feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas and quartz.

Origin. Lava can be found near all volcanoes.

Color. Black, dark grey, grey.

Hardness. 2-3.

Energy. Emotional, spiritual. It’s considered to be a stone of rebirth.

Chakra. Base, root.

History. Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C.
The word lava comes from Italian, and is probably derived from the Latin word labes which means a fall or slide.
Lava stone is easily the oldest and most frequently found stone in the world and used by nearly an endless amount of cultures.


Cu2CO3(OH)2 (carbonate of copper).

Origin. Russia, Congo, Zambia, Namibia, Mexico, France, Israel.

Crystal system. Monoclinic.

Color. Concentric bands of light and dark green.

Hardness. 3,5 – 4.

Energy. Soothing, calming.

Chakra. Heart.

History. The name malachite derives from the Greek word for the mallow plant, malachi, the leaves of which are similar shade of green.
In Israel, malachite is mined at Timna Valley, often called King Solomon´s mines. Archeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted at the site for over 3000 years. Most of Timna´s current production is also smelted, but the finest pieces are worked into silver jewelry.

Milky quartz

SiO2 (silicon dioxide).

Origin. Milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere.

Opaque white.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Vague, confused.

Chakra. Sacral, crown

History. Less precious than the transparent variety, milky quartz has not had as exalted a history, but it has been used for making beads for jewelry for some time.
Many types of rock crystal contain veins and patterns of small bubbles within their clear, transparent interiors, usually caused by water or gas. The base of quartz crystals is often cloudy, with small bubbles; this cloudy section is called milky quartz. Milky quartz can sometimes turn clear when gentle warmth is applied.


(Na,K)AISi3O8 (sodium potassium aluminum silicate).

Origin. Australia, Austria, Mexico, Madagascar, Burma, Norway, Poland,
Sri Lanka.

Color. Blue, grey, white, pink, green, brown.

Hardness. 6 – 6,5.

Energy. Emotionally balanced, intuitive.

Chakra. Solar plexus.

History. Moonstone has been used as jewelry for centuries, including ancient civilizations. The Romans admired moonstone, as they believed it was born from solidified rays of the moon. Both the Romans and the Greeks associated moonstone with their lunar gods and goddesses.

Moss agate.

SiO2 (silicon dioxide)

Origin. United States, Australia, India, Russia.

Crystal system. Trigonal or monoclinic.

Color. Lime color with inclusions that imitate the looks of trees, plants, and landscapes.

Hardness. 6,5 - 7.

Energy. Concentration, awareness.

Chakra. Heart.

History. Despite its name, moss agate don´t contain organic matter and is usually formed from weathered volcanic rocks. It is not a true form of agate, as it lacks agate's defining feature of concentric banding. Moss agate is of the Chalcedony variety with green inclusions that resemble moss.
Some of the ancient legends assert that Moss Agate has the authority to protect the users from any threat and provide their owners with power, bravery, and the capability to cure fears.

Mother of Pearl

-Variable CaCO3.

Origin. New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, Channel Islands, California Abalone. U.S.A.

Color. Iridescent blues, greens, silver, red.

Hardness. 3,5 – 4.

Energy. Family-oriented.

Chakra. Heart, sacral.

History. Abalone shell has been used in many cultures as a decoration for inlays into carvings and for jewelry.
A disc of abalone shell is worn on the forehead of Apache girls as they greet the sun on the morning of their initiation into womanhood.
Mother of pearl is made of essentially the same material as abalone shell and pearl. It is the thick layer on the inner surface of shells from which pearls are grown – hence its common name. It is also known as “nacre”.


SiO2 silica (silicon dioxide).

Origin. Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the earth´s continental
crust after feldspar.

Crystal system. Trigonal, trapezohedral, hexagonal.

Color. Transparent, clear.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Clear, transparent.

Chakra. All chakras.

History. In ancient Greece there were some who believed that clear quartz was ice that had frozen so completely that it would never melt again, crystallos being the Greek word for ice crystals.
In the development of modern technology, quartz crystals has been vital. For example, tons of Brazilian quartz was mined during the World War 2 for radio sets.


70-75 % SIO2 + MgO,Fe3O4 (volcanic glass).

Origin. Obsidian can be found in locations, which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions, such as Argentina, Canada, Chile, Greece, Guatemala, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, and Scotland.

Color. Black with white, gray or red markings. Rainbow obsidian.

Hardness. 5-5,5.

Energy. Deep, hidden.

Chakra. Base.

History. Obsidian has been used to make razor sharp arrowheads and knives since the Stone Age. In Central America, the Aztecs fashioned clubs, axes, and swords from this natural volcanic glass. It was also used in religious carvings and ornamental regalia.
In Europe during the Middle Age, obsidian was a popular material to make spheres and magical mirrors for seeing into the future or into another world.


SiO2 (silicon dioxide)

Origin. Yemen, Uruguay, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Madagascar, Latin America, United Kingdom.

Crystal system. Hexagonal/Trigonal.

Color. Black, red, white, green. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color.

Hardness. 6,5 – 7.

Energy. Protection, Healing.

Chakra. Base, Root.

History. Onyx, from the Greek “onychas”, meaning claw or fingernail. With its flesh tone color, onyx can resemble a fingernail.
Onyx was used in Egypt as early as the Second Dynasty to make bowls and other pottery items. Use of sardonyx appears in the art of Minoan Crete, notably from the archaeological recoveries at Knossos.
The ancient Romans entered battle, carrying amulets of sardonyx engraved with Mars, the god of war.


hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O).

Origin. Australia, U.S.A. Ethiopia, Mexico.

Color. Clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, olive, brown, black.

Hardness. 5,5 – 6.

Crystal system. Amorphous.

Energy. Creativity.

Chakra. Opal occurs in nearly all colors, and dominant color energies may be used to stimulate corresponding chakras.

History. The word 'opal' is adapted from the Latin term opalus. Opal was rare, and very valuable, in antiquity.
In the middle Ages, opal was considered a stone that could provide great luck because it was believed to possess all the virtues of each gemstone whose color was represented in the color spectrum of the opal. It was also said to have the power of invisibility if wrapped in a fresh bay leaf and held in the hand.
Opal is now the national gemstone of Australia.
In late 2008, NASA announced it had discovered opal deposits on Mars.


CaCO3 + conchiolin + H2O.

Origin. China, Japan, U.S.A.

Color. White, pink, brown, black.

Hardness. 2,5 – 3,5.

Energy. Sensitive, confused.

Chakra. Sacral.

History. The name “pearl” is thought to derive from the Latin word pernula or perna, meaning “sea shell” or “mussel”.
Pearls have always been regarded as one of the most precious of jewels for its rarity and beauty.
Traditionally, perfectly clear, round pearls were the primary gemstone of the moon in India. In both India and China, the pearl is a symbol of purity, excellence, immortality, enlightenment and wisdom.

Peridot, Olivine


Origin. Hawaii, U.S.A. Australia, Brazil, China, Kenya, Myanmar, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tanzania, Sri Lanka.

Crystal system. Orthorhombic.

Color. Yellow, yellow-green, olive-green to brown, lime-green.

Hardness. 6,5-7.

Chakra. Heart, solar plexus.

History. Peridot is sometimes mistaken for emerald and has in fact been confused in many church treasures.
Peridot crystals have been collected from some pallasite meteorites and is the only gemstone found in meteorites.
The largest peridot olivine is a 310-carat (62 g.) specimen in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington D.C.- U.S.A.



Origin. Peru, Spain, Italy, South Africa, United States.

Crystal system. Isometric.

Color. Pale metallic gold.

Hardness. 6 – 6,5.

Energy. Optimism, clarity, protection.

Chakra. Solar Plexus.

History. Also known as Fool’s Gold and iron pyrite, the name pyrite derives from the Greek “purites”, which means of fire or in fire. It was not uncommon in ancient Rome to give this name to different types of stones, which all shared a characteristic of creating sparks when struck against steel.
In the 1800’s, pyrite found popularity in jewelry, setted in silver. Later, in the 20th century, pyrite was used in Energizer brand lithium batteries and in crystal radio receivers as a mineral detector.


(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg,Ca)SiO3 (manganese inosilicate).

Origin. Brazil, Sweden, Finland, Japan, Mexico.

Crystal system. Triclinic.

Color. Pink, dark pink with veins of black or brown, brownish red, yellow.

Hardness. 5,5 – 6,5.

Energy. Practical, motivated, insecure.

History. Identified only in 1819, rhodonite takes its name from the Greek word rhodon, meaning rose. The mineral is often used to make ornamental figures and large art-object. It is also used in ceramic glazes and artist pigment.

Rose quartz

SiO2 (silicon dioxide).

Crystal system. Trigonal.

Color. Pink, rose, peach, violet-pink.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Emotional, loving, sensitive.

Chakra. 7.

History. Rose quartz was highly valued in the classical world both for its decorative qualities and its healing properties.
The Romans imported rose quartz from mines in Sri Lanka, India, and even Russia.

Rutilated quartz

SiO2 + TiO2 (silicon dioxide with titanium dioxide).

Origin. The Alps, Malawi, India, Brazil, U.S.A.

Crystal system. Trigonal.

Color. Transparent or smoky with gold or brown inclusions.

Hardness. 6 – 6,5.

Energy. Energizing.

Chakra. All chakras.

History. Rutilated quartz is well known in the Alps, where clear quartz is found shot through with fine golden threads. Also known as sagenite or saginitic quartz, rutilated quartz was once a popular gemstone for a fashion of rings and necklaces known as “hair of Venus” or “arrows of love”. The fine golden threads bear an uncanny resemble to locks of golden hair, which appear to be trapped in the crystal.

Smoky Quartz

SiO2 silica (silicon dioxide).

Origin. Scotland, Malawi.

Crystal system. Trigonal, trapezohedral, hexagonal.

Color. Yellow-brown to black.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Potential, beginnings, change.

Chakra. Base.

History. A golden-brown variety of smoky quartz is found in Scotland, and is called “cairngorm” after the name of the mountain range in which it is found. Traditionally, fine examples of smoky quartz were polished and set as jewelry, and were handed down from generation to generation within a family as a protective or healing amulet.


(Na4AI3 (SiO4)3Cl) (sodium aluminum silicate with chlorine).

Origin. Canada, Greenland, U.S.A. Brazil, Bolivia, Portugal, Myanmar, Russia, Romania.

Crystal system. Cubic.

Color. Deep blue with white veins and inclusions, green, yellow, violet.

Hardness. 5,5 – 6.

Energy. Meditator, communicator.

Chakra. Throat, brow.

History. Sodalite was not identified as a separate mineral until the nineteenth century. It has, however, been used for many centuries for making beads. No doubt, it would have been named “sapphire” in the Middle Ages, as virtually all deep-blue gemstones were.



Origin. Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar.

Crystal system. Cubic, Hexoctahedral.

Color. Red, pink, blue, lavender/violet, dark green, brown, black, colorless.

Hardness. 8.

Energy. Renewal and Positivity.

Chakra. All – According to color.

History. Some spinel varieties are among the most famous gemstones: among them are the “Black Prince's Ruby”, the "Timur ruby" in the British Crown Jewels, and the "Côte de Bretagne", formerly from the French Crown jewels.
In the past, before the arrival of modern science, spinel and rubies were equally known as rubies.
Spinel is the name given to the red gemstones that have been somewhat confusingly associated with rubies throughout their history. The origin of the name is unclear, but it is believed to have come from the Latin word “spina”, which means little thorn and may refer to the sharp points that occur on some spinel crystals.



Origin. Southern Norway, Sweden, Siberia and in various locations in the United States.

Crystal system. Triclinic.

Color. Colorless, yellow, red, green, blue, and copper.

Hardness. 6 – 6,5.

Energy. Leadership, creativity, sexuality.

Chakra. Base and Sacral.

History. According to Native American legend, the blood of a great warrior wounded by an arrow, dropped onto pieces of Oregon sunstone. The blood carried his warrior spirit into the stones, coloring them with shades of red and giving them sacred power.


Amorphous silicates (glass).

Origin. Tektite sites, according to the four known strewn fields.
- European strewn field, Germany, age – 15 million years.
- Austral-Asian strewn field, South East Asia.
- North American strewn field, U.S.A. age – 34 million years.
- Ivory Coast strewn field, Ghana, age – 1 million years.

Color. Earth colored, dark green, brown, black.

Hardness. 5.

Energy. Universal, expansive, aware, awakened.

Chakra. Heart, base.

History. Tektites (from Greek tektos, meaning molten) are natural glass rocks up to a few centimeters in size, which most scientist argue were formed by the impact of large meteorites on Earth´s surface.
Tektites are among the “driest” rocks, with an average water content of 0.005%. This is very unusual, as most of the craters where tektites may have formed were underwater before impact.


CuAI6 (PO4)4(OH)8 4H2O (hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminum).

Origin. China, Tibet, Iran, Afghanistan, Australia, North India, Chile, U.S.A.

Crystal system. Triclinic.

Color. Light blue, blue-green, green.

Hardness. 5 – 7.

Energy. Immune, protective.

Chakra. Throat.

History. Turquoise was mined by the ancient Egyptians in the Sinai Peninsula, near Red Sea. It was also mined in ancient Persia. The Ottoman Turks valued the stone and they continued the often difficult trading process with the tribes controlling the mining operations. This demand for turquoise made it an expensive and valued stone. It entered the European markets via Turkey, and thus, from the thirteenth century onwards, it became known as “turquoise”, the Turkish stone.

Tiger eye

SiO2 silica (silicon dioxide).

Origin. South Africa, U.S.A. Canada, Australia, Korea, China, Brazil, Namibia, India, Spain, Myanmar.

Color. Yellow to brown with occasional bands of red and blue, golden. An incompletely silicified blue variant is called hawks eye.

Hardness. 7.

Energy. Sociable, practical.

Base, sacral.

History. Tiger eye is an attractive stone that is usually cut as a “cabochon”, a smooth, rounded dome that enhances its natural luster.
Original sources were India and Myanmar. South Africa and Australia are now important sources as well.


(Ca,K,Na)(AI,Fe,Li,Mg,Mn)3(AI,Cr,Fe,V)6 (BO3)3 (Si,AI,B)6O18(OH,F)4.

Origin. Brazil, Tanzania, Nigeria, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malawi.

Crystal system. Trigonal.

Color. Most commonly black, but can range from brown, violet, green, pink, or in a dual-colored pink and green.

Hardness. 7-7,5.

Energy. Protective, balancing.

Chakra. Base.

History. The ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have turned the colored varieties of tourmaline into magical gemstones. During the Middle Ages, tourmaline was not identified as a distinct mineral, as it so closely resembled the color of other gemstones. Later, Dutch traders visiting Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka) came across tourmaline, then called turmali (meaning many – colored), and introduced it as a gemstone into eighteenth-century Europe.


SiO2 +Ca2 (Fe,AI)AI2.

Origin. South Africa, Sierra Leone, Brazil, China, U.S.A.

Crystal system. Monoclinic.

Color. Various shades of green and pink, usually mottled in appearance.

Hardness. 6 – 7.

Energy. Emotion.

Chakra. Heart.

History. First discovered in U.S.A. in the Unakas mountains of North Carolina.
Unakite is an altered granite composed of pink orthoclase, green epidote and colorless quartz. It is also referred to as epidotized granite.



Origin. Tanzania (tanzanite), Kenya (anyolite), Norway (thulite), Switzerland, Austria, India, Pakistan, United States.

Crystal system. Orthorhombic.

Color. White, gray, greenish brown, greenish gray, pink, blue, purple.

Hardness. 6 – 7.

Energy. Positive, physical.

Chakra. Root/Base and Heart.

History. Zoisite has been known for nearly two centuries as an ornamental stone. The stone was named after the Austrian scientist Sigmund Von Zois, who discovered it in the Saualpe Mountains of Carinth, Austria.
There is also quite an extraordinary variety of zoisite called ruby zoisite. This is an ornamental material consisting of crystalline aggregates of green zoisite with non-transparent ruby inclusions. There is not another stone like it in the mineral world.


AI2SiO4 (F,OH)2 (silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine).

Origin. Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, U.S.A.

Crystal system. Orthorhombic.

Color. Golden yellow, pink, reddish pink, blue, clear, brown, orange, gray,

Hardness. 8.

Energy. Energy balancing.

Chakra. Solar plexus.

History. Some believe the name “topaz” derives from the old name Topazos (now called Zebirgit), an island in the Red Sea on which the Romans discovered a fine source of yellow-green olivine, to which they gave the name topazus. They also used this name for many other yellow gemstones. In fact, old legends, which speaks of topaz, may actually be referring to other yellow gemstones, such as yellow beryl or sapphire, as only recently instruments have been available to distinguish between these stones. Others believe that the name topaz derives from the Sanskrit word tapas, meaning fire or heat. Topaz is one of the most important of the nine gemstones of Ayurveda, representing the planet Jupiter.